LPU NEST

Lovely Professional University (LPU), National Entrance and Scholarship Test (NEST) 

Lovely Professional University (LPU), National Entrance and Scholarship Test (NEST) 

Mode of ExamOnline
LevelUG/PG
Level of ExamNational Level

About LPU NEST 2021

LPUNEST 2021 - Lovely Professional University (LPU) has revised the dates for National Entrance and Scholarship Test (NEST) in online mode for B.Tech courses under schedule 10. Candidates can apply for LPUNEST 2021 exam phase 10 till October 31. LPUNEST 2021 exam date for B.Tech under schedule 10 is October 6 to November 3.  LPUNEST 2021 result for each phase will be declared within 24 hrs. after the conduct of the exam i.e., November 4. Candidates who qualify the entrance exam will be eligible to participate in the counselling and admission portal.

Phase 9 exam dates were September 4 to October 6, Phase 8 exam dates were August 25 to September 3. Phase 7 exam dates were August 9 to 24, Phase 6 were July 19 to August 8, Phase 5 dates were July 1 to 18 and  Phase 4 exam dates were June 11 to 28.  LPUNEST is conducted separately for each course in the online mode. After applying, candidates are required to book slots following which admit cards will be issued by the conducting body. The link to download the LPUNEST 2021 admit card will be sent to candidates’ registered email ID.

What is LPUNEST?

LPUNEST 2021 is conducted by Lovely Professional University (LPU). LPU NEST is held to admit candidates for the various courses available in the university. Some of the major courses offered by Lovely Professional University include B.Tech, Law, Agriculture, Design, Hotel Management, and MBA. 

The university has also introduced a new course B.Tech in Robotics and Automation and Diploma in Library Science and Information from the upcoming academic session. Candidates securing equal to or more than the cutoff marks will be able to take part in the counselling process of LPUNEST 2021. Candidates will be admitted to specific courses on the basis of their ranking and course preference. 

Other Popular Law Entrance Exams:

LPU NEST 2021 Application Process

Mode of Application : Online

The application form of LPUNEST 2021 has been released by Lovely Professional University (LPU) for schedule 10. Candidates can fill the application form online mode. The steps to apply online for LPUNEST 2021 are given below.

1st Step: Registration – Candidates can register by entering a name, email ID, gender, and valid mobile number after which registration ID will be generated and sent to their registered email ID.

2nd Step: Payment of Application Fees – Having successfully registered for the exam, candidates will need to pay the requisite fee. Payment of fee can be made online or offline as shown below

Mode of Payment Category of candidates Amount
Online Application form and Soft copy of LPUNEST Kit (Boys) Rs 1000
Application form and Soft copy of LPUNEST Kit (Girls) Rs 500
Application form and hard copy of LPUNEST Kit (Boys) Rs 1500
Application form and hard copy of LPUNEST Kit (Girls) Rs 1000
Offline Boys Rs 1500
Girls Rs 1000

3rd Step: Filling of Online Application Form – Candidates must fill all required details in the online application form after payment of the fee including candidates’ personal, academic, and contact information. Candidates should scrutinize all details provided in the application form as incomplete form or incorrect information will be rejected.

4th Step: Uploading of Scanned Documents – After filling the details in the application form, candidates will need to upload scanned copies of the photograph, birth certificate/ Aadhaar card, and certificate of the qualifying exam as per the requirements mandated by the university.

5th Step: Submission of Application Form – After successfully uploading the required documents, candidates have to submit the application form of LPUNEST 2021. Candidates must print a copy of the filled application form for future reference.

Application Fees

Category Quota Mode Gender Amount
OBC, ST, General, SC   Online Male ₹ 1000
OBC, ST, General, SC   Online Female ₹ 500
OBC, ST, General, SC   Offline Male ₹ 1500
OBC, ST, General, SC   Offline Female ₹ 1000

LPU NEST B.Tech Application Details

Mode of Payment : Net Banking | Credit Card | Debit Card | Other

LPU NEST 2021 Highlights

Full Exam Name Lovely Professional University National Entrance and Scholarship Test
Short Exam Name LPU NEST
Conducting Body Lovely Professional University
Frequency of Conduct 4 times a year
Exam Level University Level Exam
Languages English
Mode of Application Online
Application Fee (General) 1000 Rs [Online] +1 More
Mode of Exam Online
Mode of Counselling Online
Participating Colleges 7
LPU NEST B.Tech - Duration 2 Hours 30 Minutes+5 More

 

 

LPU NEST 2021 Eligibility Criteria

LPU NEST B.Tech Eligibility Criteria

Nationality: Indian citizens can apply for LPUNEST B.Tech course

Qualifying Examination: Candidates must have passed or appearing in Class 12 (10+2 scheme) Board examination from Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)/ Council for Indian School Certificate Examination (ICSE)/ State Board/ other councils, institution, college, etc. recognized by CBSE, New Delhi or other concerned apex bodies will fulfill the LPUNEST 2021 B.Tech eligibility criteria

Marks required : Candidates have to secure a minimum aggregate of 60 percent in 10+2 or equivalent exam (with Physics, Mathematics, and English) provided they have qualified LPUNEST (B.Tech.)/ JEE Main.

Subjects required:

For Biotechnology, Food Technology, Biomedical Engineering: Physics, Chemistry, English and Maths/ Biology/ Biotechnology

The subjects required for Chemical Engineering and Petroleum include Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and English

 

LPU NEST Agriculture Eligibility Criteria

The eligibility criteria of LPUNEST Agriculture 2021 is as follows:

Nationality: Indian citizens

Qualifying Examination: Candidates must have passed or appeared in Class 12 (10+2 scheme) from CBSE/ Council for Indian School Certificate Examination (CISCE)/ State Board/ other Council, Institution, college etc. recognised by Council of Boards of School Education (COBSE), New Delhi or other apex bodies.

Marks required: Candidates must pass with 60% aggregate marks in 10+2 or Intermediate (with English, Physics, Chemistry, Maths or Biology or Forestry) OR 10+2 or Intermediate (Agriculture) OR 2 yrs. Diploma in Agriculture after 10th or equivalent.

LPU NEST Agriculture Syllabus

Physics-

Physics: Unit 01

Motion
Laws of motion: Force and inertia, Newton's first law of motion; momentum, Newton's second law of motion; impulse; Newton's third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications; equilibrium of concurrent forces
Laws of motion: Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction. Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force and its applications
Work, energy, and power: Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic and potential energies, work energy theorem, power. Potential energy of a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, conservative and non-conservative forces
Work, energy, and power: Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions
Rotational motion: Centre of mass of a two-particle system, centre of mass of a rigid body; basic concepts of rotational motion; moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum and its applications
Rotational motion: Moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems, and their applications. Rigid body rotation, equations of rotational motion

Physics: Unit 02

Kinematics, gravitation, and oscillations
Physics and measurement: Physics, technology, and society, SI units, fundamental and derived units. Least count, accuracy and precision of measuring instruments, errors in measurement, dimensions of physical quantities
Physics and measurement: Dimensional analysis and its applications
Kinematics: Frame of reference. Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity, uniformly accelerated motion, velocity- time, position-time graphs
Kinematics: Frame of reference. Relations for uniformly accelerated motion. Scalars and vectors, vector addition and subtraction, zero vector, scalar and vector products, unit vector, resolution of a vector. Relative velocity, motion in a plane
Kinematics: Frame of reference. Projectile motion, uniform circular motion
Gravitation: The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity
Gravitation: Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites
Oscillations and waves: Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation; phase; Oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant
Oscillations and waves: Energy in S.H.M.-kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced, and damped oscillations, resonance; wave motion; longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of a wave
Oscillations and waves: Displacement relation for a progressive wave; principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, beats, Doppler effect in sound

Physics: Unit 03

Thermal physics
Properties of solids and liquids: Elastic behaviour, stress-strain relationship, Hooke's Law, Young's modulus, bulk modulus, modulus of rigidity. Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal's law and its applications. Viscosity, Stokes' law, terminal velocity
Properties of solids and liquids: Streamline and turbulent flow, Reynolds number. Bernoulli's principle and its applications. Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application of surface tension-drops, bubbles and capillary rise
Properties of solids and liquids: Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat capacity, calorimetry; change of state, latent heat. Heat transfer conduction, convection and radiation, Newton's law of cooling
Thermodynamics: Thermal equilibrium, zeroth law of thermodynamics, concept of temperature. Heat, work, and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes. Carnot engine and its efficiency
Kinetic theory of gases: Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas. Kinetic theory of gases-assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature: RMS speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom
Kinetic theory of gases: Law of equipartition of energy, applications to specific heat capacities of gases; mean free path, Avogadro's number

Physics: Unit 04

Electricity magnetism
Electrostatics: Electric charges-conservation of charge, Coulomb's law-forces between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field: Electric field due to a point charge
Electrostatics: Electric field-electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field. Electric flux
Electrostatics: Gauss's law and its applications to find field due to infinitely long uniformly charged straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell
Electrostatics: Electric potential and its calculation for a point charge, electric dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators
Electrostatics: Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitor, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor
Current electricity: Electric current, drift velocity, Ohm's law, electrical resistance, resistances of different materials, V-I characteristics of Ohmic and non-Ohmic conductors, electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity
Current electricity: Colour code for resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance. Electric cell and its internal resistance, potential difference and EMF of a cell
Current electricity: Combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff's laws and their applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge. Potentiometer-principle and its applications
Magnetic effects of current and magnetism: Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long current carrying straight wire and solenoid
Magnetic effects of current and magnetism: Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors
Magnetic effects of current and magnetism: Definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer, its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter
Magnetic effects of current and magnetism: Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements
Magnetic effects of current and magnetism: Para-, dia-, and ferro-magnetic substances. Magnetic susceptibility and permeability, hysteresis, electromagnets and permanent magnets

Physics: Unit 05

Atomic structure and optics
Atoms and nuclei: Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones
Atoms and nuclei: Radioactivity-alpha, beta, and gamma particles/ rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion
Dual nature of matter and radiation: Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's photoelectric equation; particle nature of light. Matter waves-wave nature of particle, De Broglie relation
Dual nature of matter and radiation: Davisson-Germer experiment
Optics: Reflection and refraction of light at plane and spherical surfaces, mirror formula, total internal reflection and its applications, deviation and dispersion of light by a prism, lens formula, magnification, power of a lens
Optics: Combination of thin lenses in contact, microscope and astronomical telescope (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers
Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens' principle, laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle. Interference, Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum
Wave optics: Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes, polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster's law, uses of plane polarized light and polaroids

Physics: Unit 06

Electrical and electronics
Electromagnetic induction and alternating currents: Electromagnetic induction; Faraday's law, induced EMF and current; Lenz's law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage
Electromagnetic induction and alternating currents: Reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit, resonance; quality factor, power in AC circuits, wattless current. AC generator and transformer
Electromagnetic waves: Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics. Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays). Applications of E.M. waves
Electronic devices: Semiconductors; semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias; diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor
Electronic devices: Transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND, and NOR). Transistor as a switch
Electronic devices: Communication systems-propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere; sky and space wave propagation, need for modulation, amplitude and frequency modulation, bandwidth of signals, bandwidth of transmission medium
Electronic devices: Basic elements of a communication system

Mathematics-

Mathematics: Unit 01

Algebra
Sets, relations, and functions: Sets and their representation; union, intersection, and complement of sets and their algebraic properties; power set; relation, types of relations, equivalence relations; functions
Sets, relations, and functions: One-one, into, and onto functions, composition of functions
Complex numbers and quadratic equations: Complex numbers as ordered pairs of reals, representation of complex numbers in the form a+ib and their representation in a plane, Argand diagram, algebra of complex numbers
Complex numbers and quadratic equations: Modulus and argument (or amplitude) of a complex number, square root of a complex number, triangle inequality, quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their solutions
Complex numbers and quadratic equations: Relation between roots and coefficients, nature of roots, formation of quadratic equations with given roots
Sequences and series: Arithmetic and geometric progressions, insertion of arithmetic, geometric means between two given numbers. Relation between A.M. and G.M. sum upto n terms of special series: Geometric progression

Mathematics: Unit 02

Matrices, vectors, and reasoning
Matrices and determinants: Matrices, algebra of matrices, types of matrices, determinants and matrices of order two and three, adjoint, transpose, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices, properties of determinants, evaluation of determinants
Matrices and determinants: Area of triangles using determinants. Evaluation of inverse of a square matrix using determinants and elementary transformations
Matrices and determinants: Test of consistency and solution of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables using determinants and matrices
Vector algebra: Vectors and scalars, addition of vectors, components of a vector in two dimensions and three dimensional space, scalar and vector products, scalar and vector triple product
Mathematical reasoning: Statements, logical operations and, or, implies, implied by, if and only if. Understanding of tautology, contradiction, converse and contrapositive

Mathematics: Unit 03

Permutation-combination and binomial theorem
Permutations and combinations: Fundamental principle of counting, permutation as an arrangement and combination as selection, meaning of P (n, r) and C (n, r), simple applications
Mathematical induction: Principle of mathematical Induction and its simple applications
Binomial theorem and its simple applications: Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, general term and middle term, properties of binomial coefficients and simple applications

Mathematics: Unit 04

Limit, integration, and differentiation
Limit, continuity, and differentiability: Real valued functions, algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions, inverse functions. Graphs of simple functions
Limit, continuity, and differentiability: Differentiation of the sum, difference, product, and quotient of two functions. Differentiation of trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, composite and implicit functions
Limit, continuity, and differentiability: Derivatives of order upto two. Rolle's and Lagrange's mean value theorems. Applications of derivatives: Rate of change of quantities, monotonic increasing and decreasing functions
Limit, continuity, and differentiability: Maxima and minima of functions of one variable, tangents and normals
Integral calculus: Integral as an anti derivative. Fundamental integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions. Integration by substitution, by parts and by partial fractions. Integration using trigonometric identities
Integral calculus: Integral as limit of a sum. Fundamental theorem of calculus. Properties of definite integrals. Evaluation of definite integrals, determining areas of the regions bounded by simple curves in standard form
Integral calculus: Differential equations-ordinary differential equations, their order and degree. Formation of differential equations. Solution of differential equations by the method of separation of variables
Integral calculus: Solution of homogeneous and linear differential equations of the type: dy/dx + p(x)y = q(x)

Mathematics: Unit 05

Geometry
Coordinate geometry: Cartesian system of rectangular coordinates in a plane, distance formula, section formula, locus and its equation, translation of axes, slope of a line, parallel and perpendicular lines, intercepts of a line on the coordinate axes
Straight lines: Various forms of equations of a line, intersection of lines, angles between two lines, conditions for concurrence of three lines, distance of a point from a line, equations of internal and external bisectors of angles between two lines
Straight lines: Coordinates of centroid, orthocentre and circumcentre of a triangle, equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines
Circles, conic sections: Standard form of equation of a circle, general form of the equation of a circle, its radius and centre, equation of a circle when the end points of a diameter are given
Circles, conic sections: Points of intersection of a line and a circle with the centre at the origin and condition for a line to be tangent to a circle, equation of the tangent. Sections of cones
Circles, conic sections: Equations of conic sections (parabola, ellipse, and hyperbola) in standard forms, condition for y=mx + c to be a tangent and point (s) of tangency
Three dimensional geometry: Coordinates of a point in space, distance between two points, section formula, direction ratios and direction cosines, angle between two intersecting lines. Skew lines, the shortest distance between them and its equation
Three dimensional geometry: Equations of a line and a plane in different forms, intersection of a line and a plane, coplanar lines

Mathematics: Unit 06

Probability and trigonometry
Statistics and probability: Measures of dispersion-calculation of mean, median, mode of grouped and ungrouped data calculation of standard deviation, variance and mean deviation for grouped and ungrouped data
Probability: Probability of an event, addition and multiplication theorems of probability, Baye's theorem, probability distribution of a random variate, Bernoulli trials and binomial distribution

Mathematics: Unit 07

Probabilty and trigonometry
Trigonometry: Trigonometrical Identities and equations, trigonometrical functions, inverse trigonometric function: Definition, domain, range, elementary properties of inverse trignometric functions, heights and distances

Chemistry-

Chemistry: Unit 01

Atomic structure, states of matter, and thermodynamics
Some basic concepts in chemistry: Matter and its nature, Dalton's atomic theory; concept of atom, molecule, element and compound; physical quantities and their measurements in chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figures, S.I. units
Some basic concepts in chemistry: Dimensional analysis; laws of chemical combination; atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae; chemical equations and stoichiometry
States of matter: Classification of matter into solid, liquid, and gaseous states
Gaseous state: Measurable properties of gases; gas laws-Boyle's law, Charle's law, Graham's law of diffusion, Avogadro's law, Dalton's law of partial pressure; concept of absolute scale of temperature; ideal gas equation; kinetic theory of gases
Gaseous state: Concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities; real gases, deviation from ideal behaviour, compressibility factor and Van der Waals equation, liquefaction of gases, critical constants
Liquid State: Properties of liquids-vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on them (qualitative treatment only)
Solid state: Classification of solids-molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea); Bragg's law and its applications; unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc, and hcp lattices), voids
Solid State: Calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids; electrical, magnetic, and dielectric properties
Atomic structure: Discovery of sub-atomic particles (electron, proton, and neutron), Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations; nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect; spectrum of hydrogen atom
Atomic structure: Bohr model of hydrogen atom-its postulates, derivation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohr's model; dual nature of matter, De-Broglie's relationship
Atomic structure: Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model of atom, its important features, concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functions
Atomic structure: Variation of Ψ and Ψ2 , with r for 1s and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers (principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance; shapes of s, p, and d-orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number
Atomic structure: Rules for filling electrons in orbitals-Aufbau principle, Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals
Chemical bonding and molecular structure: Kossel-Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic and covalent bonds. Ionic bonding: Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy
Covalent bonding: Concept of electronegativity, Fajan's rule, dipole moment; valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple molecules
Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence bond theory-its important features, concept of hybridization involving s, p, and d orbitals; resonance
Molecular orbital theory: Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals (bonding, antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, concept of bond order
Molecular orbital theory: Bond length and bond energy. Elementary idea of metallic bonding. Hydrogen bonding and its applications
Chemical thermodynamics: Fundamentals of thermodynamics-system and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types of processes
First law of thermodynamics: Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity; Hess's law of constant heat summation; enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition
First law of thermodynamics: Hydration, ionization and solution
Second law of thermodynamics: Spontaneity of processes; ∆S of the universe and ∆G of the system as criteria for spontaneity, ∆G0 (standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant

Chemistry: Unit 02

Solutions, chemical kinetics, and surface chemistry
Solutions: Different methods for expressing concentration of solution-molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult's Law-ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure-composition
Solutions: Plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions; colligative properties of dilute solutions-relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure
Solutions: Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties; abnormal value of molar mass, Van't Hoff factor and its significance
Equilibrium: Meaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium
Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid-liquid, liquid-gas, and solid-gas equilibria, Henry's law, general characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes
Equilibria involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, significance of ∆G and ∆Go in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature
Equilibria involving chemical processes: Effect of catalyst; Le Chatelier's principle
Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis) and their ionization, acid-base equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants
Ionic equilibrium: Ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions
Redox reactions and electrochemistry: Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions. Electrolytic and metallic conduction
Redox reactions and electrochemistry: Conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivities and their variation with concentration: Kohlrausch's law and its applications
Electrochemical cells: Electrolytic and galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half-cell and cell reactions, EMF of a galvanic cell and its measurement
Electrochemical cells: Nernst equation and its applications; relationship between cell potential and Gibbs' energy change; dry cell and lead accumulator; fuel cells; corrosion and its prevention
Chemical kinetics: Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions: Concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst; elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units
Chemical kinetics: Differential and integral forms of zero and first order reactions, their characteristics and half-lives, effect of temperature on rate of reactions-Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation
Chemical kinetics: Collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation)
Surface chemistry: Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids-Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions. Catalysis-homogeneous and heterogeneous
Surface chemistry: Activity and selectivity of solid catalysts, enzyme catalysis and its mechanism
Colloidal state: Distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids-lyophilic, lyophobic; multi molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles)
Colloidal state: Preparation and properties of colloids-Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation; emulsions and their characteristic

Chemistry: Unit 03

Hydrogen and s-block elements
Classification of elements and periodicity in properties: Modern periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s, p, d, and f block elements, periodic trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy
Classification of elements and periodicity in properties: Electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and chemical reactivity
General principles and processes of isolation of metals: Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores
General principles and processes of isolation of metals: Steps involved in the extraction of metals-concentration, reduction (chemical and electrolytic methods) and refining with special reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn, and Fe
General principles and processes of isolation of metals: Thermodynamics and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals
Hydrogen: Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties, and uses of hydrogen; physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water; structure, preparation, reactions, and uses of hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen: Classification of hydrides-ionic, covalent and interstitial, hydrogen as a fuel
s-block elements (alkali and alkaline earth metals) Group-1 and 2 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group
s-block elements (alkali and alkaline earth metals) Group-1 and 2 elements: Diagonal relationships. Preparation and properties of some important compounds-sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate
s-block elements (alkali and alkaline earth metals) Group-1 and 2 elements: Industrial uses of lime, limestone, plaster of Paris and cement; biological significance of Na, K, Mg, and Ca

Chemistry: Unit 04

p, d, and f-block elements and environmental chemistry
p-block elements: Group-13 to Group-18 elements-general Introduction-electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first element in each group
p-block elements: Group-13 to Group-18 elements-Groupwise study of the p-block elements
p-block elements: Group-13-preparation, properties, and uses of boron and aluminium; structure, properties, and uses of borax, boric acid, diborane, boron tri- fluoride, aluminium chloride and alums
p-block elements: Group-14-tendency for catenation; structure, properties, and uses of allotropes and oxides of carbon, silicon tetrachloride, silicates, zeolites and silicones
p-block elements: Group-15-properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; allotrophic forms of phosphorus; preparation, properties, structures, and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides, (PCl₃, PCl₅)
p-block elements: Group-15-structures of oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen and phosphorus
p-block elements: Group-16-preparation, properties, structures, and uses of dioxygen and ozone; allotropic forms of sulphur; preparations, properties, structures, and uses of sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid (including its industrial preparation)
p-block elements: Group-16-structures of oxoacids of sulphur
p-block elements: Group-17-preparation, properties, and uses of hydrochloric acid; trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; structures of interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens
p-block elements: Group-18-occurrence and uses of noble gases; structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon
d-and f-block elements: Transition elements-general introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in properties of the first row transition elements-physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states
d-and f-block elements: Transition elements-general trends in properties of the first row transition elements-atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation, interstitial compounds, alloy formation
d-and f-block elements: Transition elements-preparation, properties, and uses of K₂Cr₂O₇ and KMnO₄
Inner transition elements: Lanthanoids-electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction. Actinoids-electronic configuration and oxidation states
Coordination compounds: Introduction to coordination compounds, Werner's theory; ligands, coordination number, denticity, chelation; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism
Coordination compounds: Bonding-valence bond approach and basic ideas of crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties; Importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals, and in biological systems)
Environmental chemistry: Environmental pollution-atmospheric, water, and soil
Tropospheric pollutants: Gaseous pollutants-oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects and prevention; green house effect and global warming; acid rain; particulate pollutants: Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist
Tropospheric pollutants: Gaseous pollutants-their sources, harmful effects and prevention
Stratospheric pollution: Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer-its mechanism and effects. Water pollution-major pollutants such as, pathogens, organic wastes and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention
Stratospheric pollution: Soil pollution-major pollutants such as: Pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides), their harmful effects and prevention. Strategies to control environmental pollution

Chemistry: Unit 05

Basic concepts of organic chemistry
Purification and characterization of organic compounds: Purification-crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography-principles and their applications
Qualitative analysis: Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, and halogens
Quantitative analysis (basic principles only): Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus. Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis
Some basic principles of organic chemistry: Tetravalency of carbon; shapes of simple molecules-hybridization (s and p)
Some basic principles of organic chemistry: Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: - C = C -, - C ≡ C - and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; homologous series; isomerism-structural and stereoisomerism
Nomenclature (trivial and IUPAC) covalent bond fission: Homolytic and heterolytic-free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond: Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation. Hydrocarbons: Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties, and reactions
Common types of organic reactions: Substitution, addition, elimination, and rearrangement
Alkanes: Conformations-Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane); mechanism of halogenations of alkanes
Alkenes: Geometrical isomerism; mechanism of electrophilic addition: Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff's and peroxide effect); ozonolysis, oxidation and polymerization
Alkynes: Acidic character; addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides; polymerization
Aromatic hydrocarbons: Nomenclature, benzene-structure and aromaticity; mechanism of electrophilic substitution: Halogenations, nitration, Friedel-Craft's alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene
Organic compounds containing halogens: General methods of preparation, properties and reactions; nature of C-X bond; mechanisms of substitution reactions. Uses; environmental effects of chloroform and iodoform, freons and DDT

Chemistry: Unit 06

Oxygen, nitrogen, polymer, and biomolecules
Organic compounds containing oxygen: General methods of preparation, properties, reactions, and uses
Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration
Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: Halogenations, nitration and sulphonation, Reimer-Tiemann reaction
Ethers: Structure
Aldehyde and ketones: Nature of carbonyl group; nucleophilic addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones; important reactions such as-nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH3, and its derivatives), Grignard reagent
Aldehyde and ketones: Oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen); acidity of-hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction; chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones
Carboxylic acids: Acidic strength and factors affecting it
Organic compounds containing nitrogen: General methods of preparation, properties, reactions, and uses
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines and their basic character
Diazonium salts: importance in synthetic organic chemistry
Polymers: General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization-addition and condensation, copolymerization; natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization
Polymers: Some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses-polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite
Biomolecules: General introduction and importance of biomolecules
Carbohydrates: Classification: aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and constituent monosaccharides of oligosacchorides (sucrose, lactose, and maltose) and polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen)
Proteins: Elementary idea of amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides; proteins: Primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes
Vitamins: Classification and functions
Nucleic acids: Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA. Biological functions of nucleic acids
Chemistry in everyday life: Chemicals in medicines-analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids antihistamines-their meaning and common example
Chemicals in food: Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents-common examples
Cleansing agents: Soaps and detergents, cleansing action

Biology-

Biology: Unit 01

Diversity and structural organisation
What is living?, biodiversity; need for classification; three domains of life; taxonomy and systematics; concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial nomenclature; tools for study of taxonomy-museums, zoos, herbaria, botanical gardens
Five kingdom classification: Salient features and classification of monera; protista and fungi into major groups; lichens; viruses and viroids
Five kingdom classification: Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms; angiosperms-classification up to class, characteristic features and examples
Five kingdom classification: Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level
Structural organisation in animals and plants: Morphology and modifications; tissues; anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence-cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and see, animal tissues
Structural organisation in animals and plants: Morphology, anatomy, and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous, and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach)
Cell structure and function: Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; plant cell and animal cell; cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; cell organelles-structure and function
Cell structure and function: Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and function)
Cell structure and function: Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus. Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action
Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis, and their significance

Biology: Unit 02

Plant physiology
Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport-diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plant-water relations-imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis
Transport in plants: Long distance transport of water-absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; transpiration-opening and closing of stomata
Transport in plants: Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-transport of food, phloem transport, mass flow hypothesis; diffusion of gases
Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; deficiency symptoms; mineral toxicity; elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; nitrogen metabolism-nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation
Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis
Photosynthesis: Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis
Respiration: Exchange gases; cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations-number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient
Plant growth and development: Seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth; plant growth and development: Seed germination; conditions of growth; differentiation, dedifferentiation, and redifferentiation
Plant growth and development: Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; growth regulators-auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed dormancy; vernalisation; photoperiodism

Biology: Unit 03

Human physiology
Digestion and absorption: Alimentary canal and digestive glands; role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; caloric value of proteins
Digestion and absorption: Carbohydrates and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorders-PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea
Breathing and respiration: Respiratory organs in animals; respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volumes
Breathing and respiration: Disorders related to respiration-asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders
Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system-structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, double circulation
Body fluids and circulation: Regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system-hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure
Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion-ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system-structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function-renin-angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor
Excretory products and their elimination: ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders; uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney
Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement-ciliary, fiagellar, muscular; skeletal muscle-contractile proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints
Locomotion and movement: Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout
Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; nervous system in humans-central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; sense organs
Neural control and coordination: Elementary structure and function of eye and ear
Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system-hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action; role of hormones as messengers and regulators
Chemical coordination and regulation: Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (common disorders e.g. dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goitre, exopthalmicgoiter, diabetes, Addison's disease)

Biology: Unit 04

Reproduction, genetics, and evolution
Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; modes of reproduction-asexual and sexual; asexual reproduction; modes-binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation
Reproduction in organisms: Vegetative propagation in plants
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination-types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Post fertilization events-development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; significance of seed and fruit formation
Human reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis-spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation
Human reproduction: Pregnancy and placenta formation; parturition; lactation
Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); birth control-need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis
Reproductive health: Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies-IVF, ZIFT, GIFT
Genetics and evolution: Heredity and variation-Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism-incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance
Genetics and evolution: Chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; sex determination-in humans, birds, honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance-haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-thalassemia
Genetics and evolution: Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes
Molecular basis of inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; central dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation-lac operon
Molecular basis of Inheritance: Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing
Evolution: Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from palaeontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence; Darwin's contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution
Evolution: Mechanism of evolution-variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg's principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution

Biology: Unit 05

Biology, biotechnology, and human welfare
Health and disease: Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, filariasis, ascariasis typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; adolescence, drug, and alcohol abuse
Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, biofortification; apiculture and animal husbandry
Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers
Biotechnology and its applications: Principles and process of biotechnology: Genetic engineering (recombinant DNA technology)
Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues-biopiracy and patents

Biology: Unit 06

Ecology and environment
Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; population and ecological adaptations; population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution
Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services-carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release
Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of biodiversity; patterns of biodiversity; importance of biodiversity; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, red data book, biosphere reserves
Biodiversity and its conservation: National parks and sanctuaries
Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and global warning; ozone depletion; deforestation
Environmental issues: Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues

English-

English: Unit 01

Grammar
Parts of speech-noun, pronoun, adjective, adverb, verb, preposition, conjunction, interjection; tenses-present, past, and future tense in active and passive form; modal verbs-can, could, may, might, should, will, would

English: Unit 02

Associate language skills
Vocabulary-antonyms, synonyms, one word substitution, word analogies, idioms and phrases

English: Unit 03

Common errors
Sentence correction and error finding exercises

English: Unit 04

Comprehension passages
Closed and open paragraphs, identifying key ideas or theme

Crop production-

Crop production: Unit 01

Livestock production
Scope and importance: (a) Importance of livestock in agriculture and industry, white revolution in India, (b) important breeds Indian and exotic, distribution of cows, buffaloes and poultry in India
Care and management: (a) Systems of cattle and poultry housing, (b) principles of feeding, feeding practices, (c) balanced ration-definition and ingredients
Care and management: (d) management of calves, bullocks, pregnant and milch animals as well as chicks crockrels and layers, poultry
Care and management: (e) signs of sick animals, symptoms of common diseases in cattle and poultry, rinderpest, black quarter, foot and mouth, mastitis and haemorrhagic septicaemia coccidiosis, fowl pox and Ranikhet disease, their prevention and control
Artificial insemination: Reproductive organs, collection, dilution and preservation of semen and artificial insemination, role of artificial insemination in cattle improvement. Livestock products: Processing and marketing of milk and milk products

Crop production: Unit 02

Crop production
Introduction: (a) Targets and achievements in foodgrain production in India since independence and its future projections, sustainable crop production, commercialization of agriculture and its scope in India
Introduction: (b) Classification of field crops based on their utility-cereals, pulses, oils seeds, fibre, sugar and forage crops
Soil, soil fertility, fertilizers and manures: (a) Soil, soil pH, soil texture, soil structure, soil organisms, soil tilth, soil fertility and soil health, (b) essential plant nutrients, their functions and deficiency symptoms
Soil, soil fertility, fertilizers and manures: (c) soil types of India and their characteristics, (d) organic manure, common fertilizers including straight, complex, fertilizer mixtures and biofertilizers; integrated nutrient management system
Irrigation and drainage: (a) Sources of irrigation (rain, canals, tanks, rivers, wells, tubewells), (b) scheduling of irrigation based on critical stages of growth, time interval, soil moisture content and weather parameters
Irrigation and drainage: (c) Water requirement of crops, (d) methods of irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage: (e) watershed management weed Control: Principles of weed control, methods of weed control (cultural, mechanical, chemical, biological, and integrated weed management)
Crops: Seed bed preparation, seed treatment, time and method of sowing/ planting, seed rate; dose, method and time of fertilizer application, irrigation, interculture and weed control; common pests and diseases, caused by bacteria
Crops: Fungi virus and nematode and their control, integrated pest management, harvesting, threshing, post-harvest technology: storage, processing and marketing of major field crops-rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, pearl millet, groundnut, mustard, pigeon-pea
Crops: Processing and marketing of major field crops-gram, sugarcane, cotton and berseem

Horticulture-

Horticulture: Unit 01

Area and production of various horticultural crops and current status
Importance of fruits and vegetables in human diets, crops diversification and processing industries
Orchard-location, layout, ornamental gardening and kitchen garden
Planting system, training, pruning, intercropping, protection from frost and sunburn
Trees, shrubs, climbers, annuals, perennials
Propagation by seeds, cutting, budding, layering and grafting

Horticulture: Unit 02

Cultivation practices, processing and marketing of
Fruits-mango, papaya, banana, guava, citrus, grapes
Vegetables-radish, carrot, potato, onion, cauliflower, brinjal, tomato, spinach and cabbage
Flowers-gladiolus, canna, chrysanthemums, roses and marigold
Principles and methods of fruit and vegetable preservation

Preparation of jellies, jams, ketchup, chips and their packing

 

Application Start Date :

1st September 2021

Application End Date :

3rd October 2021

Exam Date :
Result Date :
Conducted By :

Lovely Professional University

Official Website : https://www.lpu.in/